Iconic B-52 Bomber Epitomizes Air Power, And The Way Weapons Ought To Be Bought
The U.S. Air Force is meeting with industry this month to discuss options for upgrading engines on its B-52 bombers. So here’s an interesting piece of aerospace trivia that should be worth at least $600 on Jeopardy. When is the last time a military service decided to buy new engines for a combat aircraft that has been in service more than 60 years?
The answer is “never.”
The re-engining plan is just the latest proof that the B-52 bomber is unique in the annals of aerospace history — a plane so unusual in its longevity, performance and reputation that it would be a contender for the title of “most iconic airframe in history.” Boeing won the contract to design the B-52 in 1946 — a year before the Air Force was separated from the Army to become an independent service — and yet the bomber continues to be used in Southwest Asia, in the Western Pacific, and in the strategic nuclear force today.
Multiple generations of military aircraft have come and gone since the B-52 first took flight, but the “Buff” (as pilots prefer to call it) will likely remain in service for another three decades. At that point, its history from inception to retirement would span a hundred years. How is that possible in an era that has seen so many iconic innovations disappear in the onward rush of technology? I’ll offer an explanation at the end, but first let me tell you a little about the B-52′s history.
The requirement for an intercontinental bomber originated during World War Two, when U.S. leaders realized that if Britain was defeated by the Axis powers, forward bases might no longer be available for taking the fight to the enemy. So America needed a bomber with unprecedented reach — one not dependent on overseas bases to sustain an air campaign. The assumption at the time was that it would be propeller-driven and carry high-explosive gravity bombs, because jet engines, nuclear warheads and standoff weapons did not exist.
Unfortunately, even the best propeller-driven designs of the day couldn’t meet the requirements the Air Force set forth, and the program was almost canceled. That near-death experience led Boeing engineers to propose a radically new design — an all-jet aircraft with swept rather than straight wings and the ability to refuel in the air. Building the plane would require integration of several technologies that hadn’t even existed a decade earlier, but the end result was deeply appealing to Strategic Air Command leader Curtis LeMay.
And so the B-52 program stayed on track, performing its first flight in 1952 and entering the Air Force fleet in 1955. By that time the Air Force was first among equals in the military establishment thanks to its ability to deliver nuclear bombs, and the B-52 was conceived mainly as a high-flying aircraft intended for carrying nuclear gravity bombs over intercontinental distances. Being able to lay waste to the Soviet Union was considered the best way of deterring Moscow from engaging in nuclear aggression against America.
This would all be ancient history today if the B-52 had remained a high-flying nuclear bomber, but as new technologies appeared — intercontinental ballistic missiles, surface-to-air missiles, smart weapons — the plane was continuously upgraded and adapted to cope with new warfighting conditions and requirements.
When surface-to-air missiles made high-altitude flight too dangerous, structural modifications and navigation aids were installed to enable low-level flight below the radar horizon of enemy defenders. When the local defenses around critical targets became too thick to penetrate even at low altitudes, standoff weapons such as Hound Dog and the Short Range Attack Missile were introduced. These were followed by nuclear-armed cruise missiles that could traverse over a thousand miles after being released from the plane.
Meanwhile, some variants of the Buff were adapted to carry conventional gravity bombs with which to attack North Vietnam. The B-52 would eventually be able to carry two dozen different types of non-nuclear weapons on wing pylons and in its bomb bay. But because such weapons had to be delivered near enemy air defenses, a succession of increasingly sophisticated electronic countermeasures were introduced to deceive adversary radars, fighters and surface-to-air missiles.
And then, beginning with Operation Desert Storm in 1991, U.S. bombers began carrying precision-guided munitions. Some of these “smart bombs” were guided by laser targeting pods on the planes, and others by Global Positioning System signals from satellites. Either way, they introduced an unprecedented degree of accuracy into air campaigns. The B-52 thus ended up being not only a strategic nuclear bomber and a long-range conventional strike aircraft, but also an airframe suitable for close air support of troops on the ground.
Dozens of other enhancements were made to the B-52 during its six-decade service life, from satellite communications to terrain avoidance systems to turbofan engines in the final “H” variant of the bomber — the only variant still flying today. Collectively, these investments have kept the Buff relevant long after other combat aircraft that came later were retired. So one obvious lesson of the B-52′s success is that a willingness to invest in modifications combined with sufficient growth margin to accommodate new technology is a valuable contributor to longevity.
But there were other factors contributing to the B-52′s success. The high priority assigned to fielding a robust bomber force once Russia tested its first nuclear device certainly helped to keep the program on track, as did General LeMay’s forceful personality. The Air Force has had other forceful personalities in positions of authority during its history, but circumstances during the early Cold War period afforded LeMay a degree of latitude in driving the capabilities of the bomber fleet that his successors would not enjoy.
Another factor at work was the consistently close relationship between the Air Force and prime contractor Boeing. Boeing built all eight variants of the B-52 –746 planes in all — and continued to support the plane throughout its operational history. It also played a central role in organizing a supply chain of 5,000 companies providing critical production inputs. Boeing outsourced over 40% of the airframe to other companies, exhibiting extraordinary logistical planning and execution to keep the program on track.
The Air Force had a similarly close relationship with engine maker Pratt & Whitney, which provided the essential J57 engine that made initial variants of the bomber feasible. Engine companies often don’t get as much recognition as airframe companies when a military aircraft program is successful, but the B-52 program could not have succeeded without Pratt’s cutting-edge propulsion technology. Pratt & Whitney also developed the TF33 turbofan for the final “H” variant of the Buff, which today continues powering bombers still in the fleet.
One ironic factor driving the B-52′s success in later years was that the chronic shortage of funding for new aircraft programs often inclined Air Force planners to favor upgrades of existing airframes. This was particularly true after the Cold War ended, when funding cuts stopped the development and production of new bombers. The B-52 had already been in operation for over 30 years at that point and might have been thought to be at the end of its useful life, but with threats and budgets both reduced, it was politically attractive to modify the plane and keep it flying.
In other words, just as the high priority assigned to the B-52 during its early years kept development on track, so the relatively low priority assigned to nuclear deterrence and global strike after the Soviet collapse militated against replacing the B-52 with something more modern. The Air Force has now embarked on yet another bomber development program ostensibly aimed at replacing the Buff. Time will tell whether that effort works out better than the B-58 Hustler, B-70 Valkerie, B-1 Lancer and B-2 Spirit did. At this point, the B-52′s continued presence in the fleet through 2040 looks assured.
B-52 prime contractor Boeing and engine maker Pratt & Whitney contribute to my think tank.